Topic Discussion

OVERVIEW OF CONTAMINANTS AND THEIR POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS.
Contaminants
Symptoms
Cause
Health effects/Damages
Hard water
Soap curd, and scum in wash basins and bathtub. Whitish scale deposits in pipes
Calcium and Magnesium Salts
Kidney/bladder stones
Odor
Chlorine smell
Excessive Chlorination
Could occur from formation of disinfection byproducts
Phenol smell (Chemical odor)
Industrial waste seeping into surface or ground water supplies
Various compounds may be carcinogenic
Detergent odor, waste foams when drawn
Seepage of septic discharge into underground water supply.
Disease causing microorganisms may be present.
Taste
Salty or Brackish
High sodium content
Aesthetic only
Alkali taste
High dissolved mineral containing alkalinity
Aesthetic only
Metallic taste
Very low Ph water,
Heavy iron concentration, Leaching of lead and copper.
Leaching of metals from plumbing systems which can cause health problems.
Turbidity
Dirt, salt, clay
Suspended matter in surface water
Turbid water may contain disease causing microorganisms.
Discolored water (red ,iron water)
Brown red stains on sink and other porcelain bathroom fixtures, discolored clothing.
Dissolved iron in influent(water appears clear when first drawn)
Lung disease, unpleasant metallic taste, discoloration
Precipitate iron water will not be clear when drawn
Yellow water
Yellowish cast to water after softening or filtering or due to rusty pipes etc...
Tannins in water from decaying vegetation and peaty soil
Tangy taste, musty or earthy odor, stain laundry
Chlorine
Eye, nose irritation
Water additive used to disinfect microbes
Stomach discomfort
Fluoride
Dental fluorosis, pain and tenderness of bones etc..
Water addictive, erosion of natural deposits, discharge from fertilizer
Bone disease
Lead
 Appetite loss, abdominal pain, constipation, fatigue,  sleeplessness, irritability etc..
Corrosion of household plumbing systems,
Delays in physical and mental development, high blood pressure
pH
Lower pH (less than 7)
Acidic, soft, corrosive
Premature damage to metal piping, metallic or sour taste, staining of laundry
Higher pH (greater than 7)
Alkali taste. hard
Formation of deposits on dishes, utensils, laundry basins etc..
Microorganisms
(coli forms, cryptosporidium)
Vomiting, cramps, diarrhea etc..
Human and animal fecal waste
Gastrointestinal illness
 
PERMISSIBLE WATER LIMITS
Characteristics
Limits
pH
6.5-8
Total dissolved solids
500 Mg/L
Total hardness (as CaCo3)
Max 300 ppm
Dissolved oxygen
Min 10 Mg/L
Fluorides
Max 1 Mg/L
Turbidity
Max 5 NTU
Total iron
Max 0.3 ppm
Chloride
Max 250 Mg/L
Residual chlorine
Min 0.2 Mg/L
Acidity
Max Mg/L
Alkalinity
Max 200 Mg/L
Calcium as Ca
Max 75 Mg/L
Nitrate as (NO2)
Max 45 Mg/L


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